Basic Computer Fundamentals Definitions


A domain name extension dedicated to a commercial organization.


A domain name extension dedicated to government, including federal, state, and local governments.

Access Server

It is a communications processor that connects asynchronous devices to a LAN or WAN through the network and terminal emulation software. we can also call it a network access server that performs both synchronous and asynchronous routing of protocols.

Access time

It is a time interval between the data is called from the storage and the instant delivery begins.

Active Desktop

It is a desktop configuration in which the desktop can display web pages from the internet.

Active monitor

It is a Multi ported device that amplifies LAN transmission signals and responsible for monitoring a token ring. it also ensures that tokens are not lost and that frames do not circulate indefinitely.

Active Server pages

It is a server-side dynamic content technology that implements a script as an ISAPI filter DLL.

Active window

The current window that is being used. it also shows the different active colors in their title bar. to active an inactive window we must need to click somewhere in the inactive window or use the taskbar to select the window.


It is an identification of an entity(location/storage area) that can be represented in the form of a name, number, label.

Advanced intelligent Network

It is an expanded set of network services made available to the user, and under user control that requires improvement in network switch architecture, signaling capabilities, and peripherals.

AFP(Apple Talk Filing Protocol)

Application and presentation layer protocol that allows users to share files and programs from the file server.


It is a set of images, pictures, or drawings displayed in sequences to imply movement.

Anonymous FTP

Anonymous FTP is a file transfer protocol over the internet that allows anonymous FTP to share data and does not require any password and credentials.

Application-level Firewall

It is a system provided by processes that maintain a complete TCP connection state and sequencing.

ASCII(American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

It is a standard coding system for computers. ASCII-7 is a 7-bit code and its extended version ASCII-8 is an 8-bit code.


It is a universally recognized text format file. an ASCII file contains characters, spaces, carriage return, punctuation, and tabs an end of file marker. but it does not contain any formatting information.

Asynchronous Transfer Mode(ATM)

It is a switching and multiplexing technology that enables voice, data, and video to be transmitted simultaneously over WANs at high speed. the data is converted into fixed length (53-bytes) packets called cells, that are transported at high speeds through the network. these cells are then converted back to their respective traffic types at the destination.

ATM switch

A device that controls information traffic between PCs using the high-speed link.

Attached File or Attachment

The file that is sent as part of an email, message, or article.


The process of determining the identity of a user that is attempting to access a system.


The process of determining what types of activities are permitted. once a user is authenticated he may be authorized different types of access or activity.

Autonomous System

A collection of networks under a common administration that shares a common routing strategy.


It is a facility of programs, hardware types of equipment, and data files that are used in case the original one is destroyed, lost, and fails to operate.

Backup files

The files are generated automatically in word and other processing programs when we save a document. these files help in protecting the document due to malfunctioning of the computer or power failure.

Backup links

It is a physical redundant connection between network devices.

Bastion Host

It is a system that is used to resist attack and installed on the network in such a way that it is expected to potentially come under attack.

BCC(Blind Carbon Copy)

It contains email addresses to which to send a copy of an email message without the other recipients seeing the addresses.

BGP(Border Gateway Protocol)

It is an inter-domain routing protocol that exchanges reachability information with another BGP system. BGP4 is the inter-domain routing protocol used on the Internet.

Binaries newsgroup

A USENET newsgroup dedicated to the posting of uuencoded binary files, often .gif or .jpg image files. some sites will not carry binaries newsgroups because their uuen-coded binaries consume so much bandwidth.


Text of an email message not including the headlines at the top of the message.

BOOTP(Bootstrap protocol)

It is a protocol used by a network node to determine the IP address of its interfaces to achieve network booting.

Bounced Mail

An email message is returned to the sender after it fails to search the intended recipient.

CC(Carbon Copy)

An email addresses to which to send a copy of an email message.


It is a method of organizing a website according to a subscription model so that the web browser can automatically download or updates the site.

Chat Room

A group of people that communicating together using an online chat system.

CHAP(Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol)

Using Handshake protocol we can identify the remote end of a PPP session of a security feature that is supported on links using PPP encapsulation.


Client and server are used in distributed computing network systems. The client relies on servers for services such as file storage, printing, and processing power. also, a computing model in which the application processing load is distributed between a client and a server computer, which shares information over a network. Typically the client is a PC running front-end software that knows how to communicate with the server. the client-server model improves performance because the client and server share the processing load.

Communication protocol

A set of rules and procedures established to interconnect different computers and communicate between them.

Communications satellite

A microwave relay station precisely positioned 36,000 Km above the quator with an orbit speed that exactly matches the earth's rotation speed. it is used for data transmission between any two randomly chosen points in a very large area.


A cookie is a short piece of data that is sent from a server to the user's browser when it visited the server's site. the cookie is stored on the user's PC. Cookies are designed to enable a website to recognize you each time you returned.

CSMA/CD(Carrier sense, multiple access, collision detect)

A contention method in which a transmitting node first tests the channel and if the channel is clear then transmits the desired message.


Cybersquatting is an authorized registration of a well-known trademark or organization name as the domain name. the intention is to misuse the name and it is done to make internet users believe that they are associated with the organization. Squatters sometimes try to sell the domain name back to the rightful owner at high rates.


A coffeehouse that provides internet access to the people.


This term is popularised by author William Gibson, for the shared imaginary reality of computer networks.

Database server

A system that receives requests from client applications over a network and responds by returning requested data. each database server is made up of a computer, an operating system, and database server software.


It is a technique to remove encryption from a file or email message and make it readable.


Transfer a file from one source to another using Internet, another network, or Mainframe to a PC.

Downloaded object security

It is the security of the information that we download from the internet.


It is a period during which the main functioning of a computer not operating correctly due to machine failures.


A message sends over a local area network, the Internet, or another network.

Email address

It is an address that identifies the recipient of an email message.


Process of converting stored or transmitted data to a coded form to prevent it from being read by unauthorized persons. 

Encryption key

A code that is used to scramble and unscramble data by an encryption algorithm.


It is a LAN technology invented by Xerox Corporation and developed jointly by Xerox, Intel, and Digital Equipment Corporation.

Ethernet Switch

It is a network service that manages traffic between workstations, usually when there are many sources o information in a network.

Expansion server

An Exchange server has been designated to expand the member list of a DL and to route email to appropriate home servers.


A free public network providing Internet access to members of a community.


A metaphor for presenting information in which text, images, sounds, and actions become linked together in a complex, nonsequential web of associations that permit the user to browse through related topics, regardless of the presented order of the topics.

Hyphenation programs

A program that hyphenates multisyllabic words that can be broken from one line to the next.

IIS(Internet Information Server)

It is a server that provides FTP server functionality.

Information technology(IT)

IT encompasses any combination of equipment that facilitates the acquisition, creation, modification, retrieval, storage, and transmission of information using electronic media.

ISDN(Integrated Services Digital Network)

A special phone line that supports modem speeds up to 64 kbps.


Internet is a worldwide network of networks.

Internet account

It is an account with an Internet service provider that allows you to connect your computer to the Internet.

Internet address

It is an URL of a location that present on the web.

Internet protocol(IP)

It is a low-level protocol that routes packets of data across separate networks tied together by routers to form the Internet or an Intranet.

Internet service provider(ISP)

The Internet service provider is an organization that provides dial-in internet accounts.

Internet telephony

It is a generic term used to describe various approaches to running voice traffic over IP networks, in particular the Internet.

Internetwork packet exchange(IPX)

It is a NetWare network layer protocol that specifies addressing routing and switching packets between a server and workstations and across interconnected LANs.


The connection of networks together using routers is called internetworking.

IP(Internet Protocol)

It is a network layer protocol in the TCP/IP stack that offers connectionless internetwork service.

IP address

It is a 32-bit address assigned to hosts using TCP/IP. an address belongs to one of five classes (A, B, C, D, or E) and is written as four octets separated by periods.

IP multicast

It is a routing technique that allows IP traffic to be propagated from one source to several destinations.

IP splicing or Hijacking

An attack whereby an active, established, session is intercepted and co-opted by the attacker.

IP spoofing

An attack whereby a system attempts to illicitly impersonate another system by using its IP network address.

ISO protocol

It is a communication protocol to interconnect geographically dispersed heterogeneous computers.

ISP(Internet service provider)

It is a company that provides internet access to other companies and individuals.

LAN(Local Area Network)

It is a network that has a high-speed low error data network covering a relatively small geographic area.

LANE(Local Area Network Emulation)

LANE enables ATM LAN clients to access and use existing LAN applications through a software layer added to the emulating devices.


It is a file directory or area that is used to store email messages.


It has a list of options from which a program user can select anyone to perform the desired action.

Menu bar

It is a row of one-word commands that appears along the top of a window just below the title bar.


Changing the view from one folder to another folder.

Network-level firewall

It is a firewall in which traffic is examined at the network protocol packet level.

NNTP(Network News transfer protocol)

An Internet protocol is used to retrieve and post information to a Usenet newsgroup.


Not connected to any network or computer.

Offline mail reader

It is a program that connects to the Net downloads your email and then disconnects allowing you to read the reply to and send mail without being charged for a connected time.

Offline mode

When your printer is not available.

Offline newsreader

A newsreader that connects to the Net, downloads all unread articles in all subscribed newsgroups and then disconnects allowing you to read reply to, and post articles without being charged for connect time.


Connected to a computer or a network.

PAP(Password authentication protocol)

It is an authentication protocol that allows PPP peers to authenticate one another.

Personal web server

It is a low-performance web server program that comes with windows 98.

Point-to-Point Protocol(PPP)

It is a communication protocol for computers that connect to the internet by telephone.

PPP account

It is an internet account that uses the PPP communications protocol.

Print server

It is a computer to which a printer is attached that is used by other computers on the network.

Protocol & Protocol Stacks

It is a setting or the rules that determine the way information is passed between computers on the network.

Protocol analyzer

It is specialized real-time computer software that connects to a network and analyzes the network traffic.

Protocol Data Unit(PDU)

PDUs are generated at all levels of the OSI model and are distinguished from one another by a prefix that indicates from which layer the PDU originates.


It is a software agent that acts on the behalf of a user.

Remote Access Server

It is a Microsoft server component that allows remote users to dial into the network.

Ring network

A computer network in which there is no host computer for controlling other computers and in which all stations are equal.

Search engine

A website that helps you to find information on the web by searching the full text of the world web for the words or phrases you type.


The issues of protecting data from unauthorized use, tampering, or destruction are collectively referred to as security issues.


It is a node or software program that provides services to clients.


It is considered as a setting that allows you to share a computer's resources on a network.

Simple-Network-Management-Protocol (SNMP)

SNMP is a popular application-level protocol for monitoring and managing the performance of TCP/IP-based internet.

Simple mail transfer protocol(SMTP)

The TCP/IP protocol specifies how computers exchange electronic mail.

Smart Host

A mail server to which all outbound mail is transmitted and all inbound mail is received.

Star network

It is a network having a central host computer system that is attached to local computers through multiple communication lines.

Start page

The web page that the browser loads when the user opens the browser without asking for a specific page.

Status bar

It is a section of a window that displays information about the program.

Subnet address

It is a portion of an IP address that is specified as the subnetwork by the subnet mask.


It is a network sharing a particular subnet address.

TCP/IP(Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)

It is a protocol stack designed to connect different networks on which the internet is based.

TCP(Transmission Control Protocol)

It is a connection-oriented transport layer protocol that provides reliable full-duplex data transmission.

TCP/IP stack

It is a communication program that windows programs use for communicating via TCP/IP.


A system in which persons sitting at CRT screens see and talk to each other via a computer communications network.


It is a remote terminal protocol that enables a terminal attached to one host to log in to other hosts as if directly connected to the remote machine.

Transmission Control Protocol

A connection-oriented transport protocol that provides reliable, full-duplex data transmission between two entities often a client and a server application.


A replacing code segment attaches itself to a program or data file.

Voice recognition unit

An input device used with voice recognition systems that convert spoken words into binary data suitable for input to the system.

Voice response unit

An output device that uses words or messages recorded on a magnetic medium to produce an audio response.

VSATS(Very Small Aperture Terminals)

It is an intelligent earth station connected to the geosynchronous satellite suitable for supporting a variety of two-way telecommunication and information services such as voice, data, and video.

Web(Word wide web)

It is an interlinked collection of hypertext documents(web pages) that reside on web servers and other documents, menus, and databases, available via URLs.


A trust model is used by PGP to validate public keys where trust is cumulative, not hierarchical, and depends on the trust of introducers.

Web directory

A website that helps you find information on the web by categorizing web pages by subjects.

Web map

A graphical view of the relationship between HTML pages in a website.

Web page

An HTML file stored on a web server.

Web page editor

A program for creating and editing files in HTML format for use as a web page.

Web Publishing Wizard

Wizard uploads web pages from FrontPageExpres to a web server.


A computer that stores web pages and responds to requests from web browsers.

Web view

View of a folder as if it were a web page.


A collection of web pages belonging to a particular person or organization.


It is an access point in a local area network for services provided by the network.

World Wide Web

It is a collection of millions of files stores on thousands of web server computers all over the world.


The "What you see is what you get" term refers to the ability of an application to display an accurate representation of the printed output on the screen.

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