In this HackerEarth Range queries problem, You are given a permutation of N numbers that are denoted by array A.

You are also given Q queries of the form:

L R: For all the subsequences from the subarray A[L], A[L + 1], ..., A[R] such that the length of subsequence is equal to the maximum element present in the subsequence, find the bitwise XOR of all the elements present in these subsequences.  
Find the answer for Q queries.


HackerEarth Range queries problem solution


HackerEarth Range queries problem solution.

#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
#define mxn 100005
int seg[4*mxn];
void update(int st, int l, int r, int idx, int val){
    if(l == r){
        seg[st] = val;
        return;
    }
    int mid = (l + r)/2;
    if(idx <= mid)
        update(2*st, l, mid, idx, val);
    else
        update(2*st+1, mid+1, r, idx, val);
    seg[st] = min(seg[2*st], seg[2*st+1]);
}
int mex_query(int st, int l, int r, int val){
    if(l == r)
        return l;
    int mid = (l + r)/2;
    if(seg[2*st] < val)
        return mex_query(2*st, l, mid, val);
    return mex_query(2*st+1, mid+1, r, val);
}
int xr_range(int n){
    if(n%4 == 0)
        return n;
    if(n%4 == 1)
        return 1;
    if(n%4 == 2)
        return n+1;
    return 0;
}
int cal(int num){
    if(num == 0)
        return 0;
    if(num%2 == 0){
        return 2*xr_range(num/2);
    }
    return (xr_range(num+1)^(2*xr_range((num+1)/2)));
}
vector<int> solve (int N, int Q, vector<int> A, vector<vector<int> > query) {
    // Write your code here
    for(int i = 0; i <= 4*(N+2) ; i++)
        seg[i] = 0;
    vector<pair<int, int>> nq[N+1];
    int i;
    for(i = 0; i < Q ; i++){
        nq[query[i][1]].push_back({query[i][0], i});
    }
    for(i = 1 ; i <= N ; i++)
        sort(nq[i].begin(), nq[i].end());
    // Fix 'r', find smallest 'x' such that last[x] < l
    vector<int> ans(Q);
    for(i = 1 ; i <= N ; i++){
        update(1, 1, N+1, A[i - 1], i);
        for(auto j : nq[i]){
            int l = j.first, pos = j.second;
            int num = mex_query(1, 1, N+1, l) - 1;
            ans[pos] = cal(num); // min val < l
        }
    }
    sort(A.begin(), A.end());
    for(i = 0; i < N ; i++)
        assert(A[i] == i + 1);
    return ans;
}

int main() {

    ios::sync_with_stdio(0);
    cin.tie(0);
    int T;
    cin >> T;
    assert(1 <= T && T <= 10);
    for(int t_i = 0; t_i < T; t_i++)
    {
        int N;
        cin >> N;
        assert(1 <= N && N <= 1e5);
        int Q;
        cin >> Q;
        assert(1 <= Q && Q <= 1e5);
        vector<int> A(N);
        for(int i_A = 0; i_A < N; i_A++)
        {
          cin >> A[i_A];
            assert(1 <= A[i_A] && A[i_A] <= N);
        }
        vector<vector<int> > query(Q, vector<int>(2));
        for (int i_query = 0; i_query < Q; i_query++)
        {
          for(int j_query = 0; j_query < 2; j_query++)
          {
            cin >> query[i_query][j_query];
          }
        }

        vector<int> out_;
        out_ = solve(N, Q, A, query);
        cout << out_[0];
        for(int i_out_ = 1; i_out_ < out_.size(); i_out_++)
        {
          cout << " " << out_[i_out_];
        }
        cout << "\n";
    }
}

Second solution

#include <bits/stdc++.h>

using namespace std;
typedef long long ll;

const int MAX_N = 1e5 + 14;

int ans[MAX_N];

int main() {
    ios::sync_with_stdio(0), cin.tie(0);
    ans[1] = 1;
    for (int i = 2; i < MAX_N; ++i)
        ans[i] = i ^ ans[i - 2];
    int t;
    cin >> t;
    while (t--) {
        int n, q;
        cin >> n >> q;
        int a[n], l[n], r[n];
        for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
            cin >> a[i];
            --a[i];
            l[a[i]] = r[a[i]] = i;
        }
        for (int i = 0; i < n - 1; ++i) {
            l[i + 1] = min(l[i], l[i + 1]);
            r[i + 1] = max(r[i], r[i + 1]);
        }
        while (q--) {
            int ql, qr;
            cin >> ql >> qr;
            --ql;
            int lo = -1, hi = n;
            while (hi - lo > 1) {
                int mid = (lo + hi) / 2;
                (ql <= l[mid] && r[mid] < qr ? lo : hi) = mid;
            }
//            cerr << lo << '\n';
            cout << ans[lo + 1] << ' ';
        }
        cout << '\n';
    }
}